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JRBM vol 2 Issue 1

Spawning habitat rehabilitation – I. Conceptual approach and methods
By JOSEPH M. WHEATON, GREGORY B. PASTERNACK and JOSEPH E. MERZ,
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Altered sediment and flow regimes in regulated rivers limit available spawning habitat for many fishes, especially salmonids. Mitigation efforts include spawning habitat rehabilitation and dam-removal, but often neglect conceptual or predictive models of hydrogeomorphic and ecological processes. Complete restoration of processes necessary for maintaining spawning habitat is often unrealistic in regulated rivers. However, we present a framework for spawning habitat rehabilitation based on the premise that certain ecologic functions and geomorphic processes can be restored in a manner that facilitates testing of underlying scientific theories. SHIRA (Spawning Habitat Integrated RehabilitationApproach) provides a science-based, systematic framework for reach-scale rehabilitation of salmonid spawning habitat in regulated rivers. This approach is driven by a mix of field data, conceptual models and numerical models to provide predictive and explanatory insight into the rehabilitation process. Conceptual models are advocated for developing multiple design scenarios and explicit hypotheses about hydrogeomorphic processes and ecologic functions provided by said designs. Hydrodynamic, habitat suitability and sediment entrainment models that test the potential validity of design hypotheses prior to construction are reviewed. It is presumed that the added insight would improve the outcome of rehabilitation projects and test underlying scientific theories against the rigors of real-world uncertainties.
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Spawning habitat rehabilitation – II. Using Hypothesis Development and Testing in Design, Mokelumne River, California, U.S.A.
By JOSEPH M. WHEATON, GREGORY B. PASTERNACK and JOSEPH E. MERZ.
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Rehabilitation of salmonid spawning habitat in regulated rivers through spawning bed enhancement is commonly used to mitigate altered sediment and flow regimes and associated declines in salmonid communities. Partial design-phase predictive results are reported from the application of SHIRA (Spawning Habitat Integrated Rehabilitation Approach) on the lower Mokelumne River, California. The primary management goal of the project was to improve habitat for spawning and incubation life stages of fall-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). In the summer of 2001, we conducted a pre-project appraisal followed by development and testing of 12 design scenarios.A subsample of eight design hypotheses, used in three of the design scenarios, is presented. Hydrodynamic, habitat suitability and sediment entrainment model results were used to test five of the eight design hypotheses. Two of the three hypotheses not tested were due to inadequate data on flow boundary conditions at high discharges. In September 2001, the project was constructed in a 152 m reach of the LMR from a final design based on all eight of the design hypotheses presented. Transparent hypothesis development and testing in design is emphasized as opposed to declaring success or failure from an ongoing long-term monitoring campaign of the case study presented.
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Sediment studies and management strategies in China
By ZHAO-YINWANG and BINGNAN LIN
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Sediment management is always most challenging in the hydraulic engineering on sediment-laden rivers. Chinese people have accumulated abundant experiences in solving the problems likewatershed erosion, heavily sediment-laden rivers, reservoir sedimentation, estuarine and coastal sedimentation, and debris flows and control strategies. This paper summarizes the sediment issues, research approaches and management strategies. The paper outlines a vision for the future sediment research in the new century, especially reporting on an ambitious plan of validation of sediment studies performed for the Three Gorges Project. The need for multidisciplinary approaches to conducting research is also discussed.
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Depth-averaged 2-D calculation of flow and sediment transport in the lowerYellow River
By WEIMING WU, ENHUI JIANG and SAM S.Y.WANG
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Because of the complexities of hyper-concentrated flow and compound-channel topography, the numerical simulation of flow and sediment transport in the lower Yellow River is extremely difficult. In this study, the depth-averaged 2-D model, CCHE2Dfvm, is applied to calculate the flood routing and sediment transport in the 100 km-long reach between Huayuankou and Jiahetan gauging stations in the lower Yellow River. The model solves the two-dimensional shallow water equations by using the finite volume method with the SIMPLEC algorithm and Rhie and Chow’s momentum interpolation technique on a curvilinear, non-staggered grid. The sediment transport equations are also solved by the finite volume method on the same grid. The flow and sediment are calculated in a decoupled form, but the three components of the sediment module: sediment transport, bed changes and bed material sorting are computed in a coupled fashion. The computations of the 1982 and 1996 floods show that the CCHE2Dfvm model is capable of efficiently simulating the flow and sediment transport with low and middle concentrations (<200 kg/m3) in the widely wandering Yellow River with very complex topography and rapidly wetting and drying processes. The computational time step is 15 minutes. The simulated flow discharges, water elevations and sediment discharges are in reasonably good agreement with the measured data. The applicability of this model in the situations of high sediment concentration (>200 kg/m3) needs to be investigated further.
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Determination of flow resistance caused by non-submerged woody vegetation
By JUHA JÄRVELÄ
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This paper investigates the determination of flow resistance caused by stiff and flexible woody vegetation.A new procedure has been developed which allows the determination of friction factor f or Manning’s n using measurable characteristics of vegetation and flow. The procedure is capable of predicting flow resistance due to: (1) leafless bushes or trees and (2) leafy bushes or trees. The application of the procedure is limited to non-submerged flow (h ≤ H) and relatively low velocity , which are typical conditions in low-gradient stream valleys, floodplains and wetlands. The procedure is novel in that it uses sound hydraulic principles and methods that are available but incorporates some adjustments based on the knowledge on mechanical design of trees and deformation of foliage in a flow. The procedure is able to account for the natural branched structure in determining area or volume of a woody plant. This makes the prediction of resistance caused by plants more accurate than if they were treated as arbitrary cylinders. The accuracy of the approach to estimate f and U was somewhat better for the leafless condition (mean error of f was −5% to +4%) compared to the leafy condition (mean error of f was −9% to −3%). The presented procedure is intended as a practical tool for estimating the relationship between plant characteristics and flow resistance for flows over floodplains and wetlands growing woody vegetation.
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Participative decision-making to identify nutrient pollution sources and potential abatement actions
By L. MCNAMARA and P. CORNISH
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Computer-based models and Decision Support Systems have become standard tools for water quality management, and many are used by policy planners. Most models are developed in a research environment, have stringent input data requirements, and are becoming increasingly complex. In the early stages of policy development, managers may prefer quick and less accurate solutions to decision problems, and often require simple and flexible models that function as screening tools. In this paper we describe a modelling and participative decision-making activity aimed at identifying nutrient pollution sources and prioritising potential abatement actions for a river basin in western Sydney, Australia. A simple GIS and spreadsheetbased export coefficient (EC) modelling approach was used to structure and analyse the problem, the assumptions and application of which were collaboratively explored with a panel of experts. The approach was effective in bringing together a group whose functioning had been impeded by uncertainty and indecision. The simplicity, transparency and flexibility of the approach gave structure to the decision-making problem and empowered the panel by providing a common language with which to collaboratively explore and evaluate prospective solutions.
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JRBM vol 2 Issue 2

Functional classification and evaluation of hydrographs based on Multicomponent Mapping (Mx)
By FLORIAN PAPPENBERGER and KEITH J. BEVEN
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The literature offers a wealth of different performance measures to evaluate model results. However, visual graphical evaluation based on the simple plotting of two curves is still the most intuitive and favoured approach by many modellers. This paper introduces a performance measure, which is based on this method (the Multicomponent Mapping (Mx )). The hydrograph is subdivided into box areas to which membership values according to the distance to the hydrograph are assigned. The box size is influenced by the expected effective observation error structure. It is demonstrated that this method can be used not only to calculate a quantitative performance measure but also to classify hydrograph outputs of Monte Carlo runs into functional classes in order to enable, for example, the cascading of uncertainties in large modelling systems. A comparison to traditional measures like the Nash-Sutcliffe and the Cumulative Absolute Error is performed.
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Uncertainty analysis of the rainfall runoff model LisFlood within the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE)
By FLORIAN PAPPENBERGE, KEITH BEVEN, AD DE ROO, JUTTA THIELEN and BEN GOUWELEEUW
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The uncertainty of the GIS based rainfall runoff model LisFlood has been investigated within the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) framework. Multipliers for the saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, the porosity of the upper and lower soil layer, channel and overland flow roughness and the maximum percolation from upper to lower storages have been sampled within a Monte Carlo analysis from a uniform random distribution.With each parameter set the model has been computed with input for the 1995 flood event of the river Meuse situated in France, Belgium and The Netherlands. Eight gauging stations have been used for model evaluation by the Multicomponent Mapping (Mx ) method. All parameters demonstrate equifinality and no parameter set could be classified as behavioural for all the evaluation datasets. However, the results of the prediction of uncertainty percentiles on the flow are very satisfactory and encouraging. The model did further show the capability to predict the uncertainty for estimating the exceedence of threshold levels, which can be used in flood warning decision making and river basin management.
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Flood risk perception and implications for flood risk management in the Netherlands
By PAUL J.A. BAAN AND FRANS KLIJN
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A society well-aware of risks must not only give attention to the prevention of flood risks but must also consider disaster management, i.e. minimising casualties and flood damages, and enhancing recovery. The Netherlands has a solid network of levees along the rivers that protect the many low-lying polders from flooding. But nature is unpredictable, extreme events may happen, and absolute protection against flooding cannot be offered. It is common practice to perform technical and economic analyses to determine the feasibility of flood protection plans.And usually also institutional and administrative aspects are addressed. But how the people that live in the polders feel about flood risk and protection plans seldom gets due attention. This paper primarily looks into the attitude of the people. How do people live with (flood) risks and how do they feel about that? What can be learned from that for communication on flood risks and flood risk management? Finally, we give some recommendations about what elements to consider when developing a flood risk management strategy.
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How can conservation biology inform the practice of Integrated River Basin Management?
By R. TUCKER GILMAN, ROBIN A. ABELL and CHRISTOPHER E. WILLIAMS
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The resource management literature strongly promotes Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) as an approach for achieving the sustainable provision of freshwater ecosystem services. There is evidence that maintaining these services depends on the conservation of native biodiversity. Through an analysis of 35 case studies from around the world, we explore the extent to which active IRBM projects incorporate biodiversity conservation goals. We begin by examining definitions of IRBM and highlight variations that may obscure project goals. We then categorize the objectives of the case study programs and compare those from developed and developing countries.We conclude that biodiversity planning is underrepresented in currently active water resource management programs, and we offer suggestions for how IRBM projects might integrate elements of conservation biology to help ensure the long-term provision of water resources both for ecosystems and for human use.
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Flood management options for The Netherlands
By WIM SILVA, JOS P.M. DIJKMAN and DANIEL P. LOUCKS
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The resource management literature strongly promotes Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) as an approach for achieving the sustainable provision of freshwater ecosystem services. There is evidence that maintaining these services depends on the conservation of native biodiversity. Through an analysis of 35 case studies from around the world, we explore the extent to which active IRBM projects incorporate biodiversity conservation goals. We begin by examining definitions of IRBM and highlight variations that may obscure project goals. We then categorize the objectives of the case study programs and compare those from developed and developing countries.We conclude that biodiversity planning is underrepresented in currently active water resource management programs, and we offer suggestions for how IRBM projects might integrate elements of conservation biology to help ensure the long-term provision of water resources both for ecosystems and for human use.
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JRBM vol 2 Issue 3

Modeling total dissolved gas production and transport downstream of spillways: three-dimensional development and applications
By Larry Weber, Heqing Huang, Yong Lai and Andrew McCoy
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Challenges a resource manager encounters concerning water quality downstream of dam spillways are well documented. The plunging and airentraining nature of spillway flows can lead to supersaturated water downstream of the dam. A multi-dimensional numerical model is developed for predicting total dissolved gas (TDG) production and transport downstream of a hydropower dam spillway. The model is based on the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations for flow hydrodynamics and a total dissolved gas model that incorporates the gas production, exchange and transport physics. A three-dimensional version of the model is calibrated using one set of available field data with a moderate flow discharge. The applicable range of the model is established by applying the calibrated model to different spillway discharges and comparing results with field data. The model is then validated with TDG field data available for Wanapum Dam and applied to two practical engineering problems. The simulations successfully reproduce the convection dominated TDG levels downstream of spillways as well as the variation of TDG concentration across the channel.
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Interannual variability in rainfall and its impact on nutrient load and phytoplankton in Myponga Reservoir, South Australia
By Leon G. Linden, David M. Lewis, Michael D. Burch and Justin D. Brookes
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Rainfall in Australia is highly variable and this lends complexity to nutrient loading models. Nutrient loads are important to reservoir management from the perspective of eutrophication and associated algal problems. We describe a flow-weighted monitoring program, nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient budgets and a hydrology based iterative phosphorus loading model. This model can predict reservoir total phosphorus load in an inter-annually variable system, Myponga Reservoir, South Australia. Rainfall variability is partially attributed to the El Nińo Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the implications for long-term forecasting of algal biomass for reservoir management are discussed.
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A three dimensional model of Cryptosporidium dynamics in lakes and reservoirs: a new tool for risk management
By Matthew R. Hipsey, Jason P. Antenucci, Justin D. Brookes, Michael D. Burch, Rudi H. Regel and Leon Linden
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A model of Cryptosporidium oocyst dynamics for lakes and reservoirs is presented. The model consists of a module that simulates oocyst inactivation, resuspension, settling and aggregation onto particles. This module was coupled to the three-dimensional Estuary Lake and Coastal Ocean Model (ELCOM), which was used to simulate lake hydrodynamics in addition to oocyst advection and turbulent diffusion. A field experiment that tracked the passage of a flood inflow throughout Myponga Reservoir, South Australia, was used to validate the coupled model. The model accurately captured the thermal dynamics, and the spatial and temporal distribution of different inorganic particle size classes and oocysts. The model and data indicate that oocysts do not readily attach to inorganic particles as other researchers have suggested but settle as free-floating oocysts according to Stoke’s sedimentation dynamics. The reduction in oocysts between the inflow and the offtake due to settling is therefore not as significant as previously thought. The potential for inactivation was also found to be small relative to the timescales for transport. The model is a useful tool to examine oocyst dynamics in lakes and reservoirs, to consider risk management assessments of different scenarios, and to assess the effectiveness of different sampling strategies.
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Resilience indicators for flood risk management systems of lowland rivers
By K. M. de Bruijn
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Resilience strategies for flood risk management focus on minimising flood impacts and enhancing recovery in contrast with resistance strategies which aim at preventing floods entirely. Since resilience strategies are expected to result in improved flood risk management, they deserve careful evaluation. For the evaluation and comparison of strategies for flood risk management it is necessary to be able to quantify the resilience of the resulting flood risk management systems. However, no adequate methods to quantify this resilience are available yet. Therefore, this paper aims at defining and testing indicators for the resilience of flood risk management systems. A set of indicators is proposed, which covers the three aspects of resilience: amplitude of the reaction, graduality of the increase of reaction with increasingly severe flood waves, and recovery rate. To evaluate the behaviour of these indicators, they have been applied on simple hypothetical systems. It was found that with the combination of the indicators an overview of the resilience of flood risk management systems can be obtained.
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Two dimensional diffusion wave modelling of flood inundation using a simplified channel representation
By K.F. Bradbrook, S.N. Lane, S.G. Waller and P.D. Bates
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This paper describes and validates a raster based treatment of a 2D diffusion wave for estimating the flood envelope that results from flood hydrographs. The model takes an explicit solution of the 2D diffusion wave equation, but introduces processes to represent both wetting and drying and, for situations where no channel data are available, a significantly simplified channel representation. The goal of the paper is to assess the extent to which this simplified channel representation is sufficient to provide first estimates of inundation extent. The channel simplification was based upon estimation of how much flow is conveyed in the portion of river channel not represented in the DEM (i.e. below bank top) and to remove this from the inflow hydrograph, such that the flow input represents the overbank flow only. This requires an estimate of bankfull flow and a method of partitioning the actual flow between that which is delivered to the floodplain and that which is conveyed by the channel. The simplification was based on the principle that it has a characteristic return period (QMED) which can be applied to a magnitude-frequency relationship for a given river reach and hence used to determine a first approximation of bankfull flow. TheWeighted Divided Channel Method was then applied to the bankfull flow to work out the residual flow delivered to the floodplain.
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Management of point source discharges into rivers: where do environmental quality standards in the new EC-water framework directive apply?
By Gerhard H. Jirka, Tobias Bleninger, Richard Burrows and Torben Larsen
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The “combined approach” in the newEC-Water Framework Directive (WFD) consisting of environmental quality standards in addition to emission limit values promises improvements in the quality characteristics of surface waters. However, the specification of where in the water body the environmental quality standards apply is missing in the WFD. This omission will limit its administrative implementation. A clear mixing zone regulation is needed so that the quality objectives of the WFD are not jeopardized. This need is demonstrated using the examples of point source discharges into rivers. Furthermore, water authorities will have to make increased use of predictive modeling techniques for the implementation of the “combined approach”.
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JRBM vol 2 Issue 4

Integrated River Basin Management: A Case for Collaboration
By Dr. Nigel Watson
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Integrated river basin management (IRBM) is an approach that has been interpreted in a number of different ways during the last 100 years. Current support for IRBM is based on a ‘myth’ of inter-agency co-ordination. However, increasing complexity and uncertainty in river basin systems has created ‘wicked’ or ‘messy’ land and water management problems. The limited capacity of state institutions to deal effectively with such conditions suggests that the current ‘myth’ must be reformed and that a more powerful system-response capability founded on inter-organisational collaboration should be developed. The case for a collaborative institutional approach to IRBM is examined with reference to the Fraser Basin Council in British Columbia, Canada.
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Freshwater and its management in India
By Sharad K Jain, Anupma Sharma and Rakesh Kumar
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India is likely to face a major challenge in the management of freshwater in view of rapidly rising population and increasing agricultural, industrial and other requirements. As the economy of the country is currently witnessing rapid growth, management of freshwater resources becomes all the more important. This paper reviews the status of freshwater resources, their quantity and quality, demands as well as the management related problems in India. A series of actions that are necessary for a long-term solution of the problem are suggested with a view that scarcity of freshwater does not become a hindrance in national economic development and food security.
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Analysing the effect of climate changes on streamflow using statistically downscaled GCM scenarios.
By Seifu Gebremeskel, Yong B. Liu, F. De Smedt, Lucien Hoffmann and Laurent Pfister
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This paper discusses the potential impact of climate changes on the streamflowof the Alzette river basin in the Grand-duchy of Luxembourg.Astatistical relationship between observed daily temperature and precipitation to surface and upper-atmospheric circulation predictor variables from the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data is formulated for the period of 1961 to 1990. Future implementation is performed with predictor variables from the coupled HadCM3A2a atmosphere-ocean general circulation model experiments from the U.K. Meteorological Office, for the periods 2036 to 2065 and 2070 to 2099. To analyse the impact of climate change on the streamflow of the study area, downscaled future local scenarios are applied as input to WetSpa, a spatially distributed hydrological model in which runoff is simulated as a function of rain intensity, soil moisture and terrain characteristics. The results of the hydrologic simulation indicate that there will be a significant increase in the magnitude and frequency of future flooding in the basin.
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GIUH based Clark and Nash models for runoff estimation for an ungauged basin and their uncertainty analysis
By Rakesh Kumar, C. Chatterjee, R. D. Singh, A. K. Lohani and Sanjay Kumar.
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Runoff estimation is an important aspect of river basin planning, development and management. Geomorphological instantaneous unit hydrograph (GIUH) approach holds a great potential for estimation of runoff from ungauged basins because of its direct application to ungauged basins, without going for cumbersome procedure of regionalization. In this study, GIUH is derived from the geomorphological characteristics of a basin and it is related to the parameters of the Clark instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH) model as well as Nash IUH model for deriving its complete shape. The developed GIUH based Clark and Nash models are applied for simulation of the direct surface runoff (DSRO) hydrographs for ten rainfall-runoff events of the Ajay basin upto Sarath gauging site of eastern India. The geomorphological characteristics of the Ajay basin are evaluated using the GIS package, Integrated Land andWater Information System (ILWIS). A comparison of the performances of the GIUH based Clark and Nash models in simulating the DSRO hydrographs by employing some of the commonly used error functions reveals that the DSRO hydrographs are computed with reasonable accuracy by both the models, which simulate the DSRO hydrographs of the basin considering it to be ungauged. The relative sensitivity and the degree of uncertainty associated with each of the input parameters of the GIUH based Clark and Nash models have been quantified. The uncertainty analysis reveals that apart from the velocity (V) parameter, the length of the highest order stream (L) is the only geomorphological parameter which results in higher degree of uncertainty in derivation of unit hydrograph using the GIUH based Clark and Nash models, and hence, it is to be evaluated with greater precision for accurate runoff estimation from ungauged basins.
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Hydraulic design of riffles in gravel-cobble bed rivers
By D.R. Walker, R.G. Millar and R.W. Newbury
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The reintroduction of riffle-pool sequences has increasingly been promoted as an appropriate rehabilitation alternative for the re-naturalization of modified gravel-bed channels. However, in the absence of hydraulic design guidelines, enhancement efforts often fail to evaluate the subsequent impacts to flood levels and sediment transport capacity. This paper describes a new hydraulic design procedure developed for the evaluation of constructed riffles in steep gravel-cobble bed streams.
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Sabo check dams – mountain protection systems in Japan
By Hubert Chanson
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In mountain areas, sabo check dams are commonly used to reduce the impact of debris flows. The dam construction decision process is a very important step in the design, and some experience in Japan is discussed. Past experience suggests that a successful design is closely linked with a global catchment approach, combining hydrology, geomorphology, hydraulic and enviornmental engineering, and eventually aesthetics. Such a system approach must be combined with long-term planning, excluding short-term political ‘reasoning’.
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